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TJ: Siapa Pencuri Gas Kelantan?
By Kapal Berita
5/10/2000 8:14 am Thu
TERJEMAHAN RINGKAS - (ala kadar)
Rencana di bawah ini lebih bersifat fakta berangka,
jadi diterjemahkan yang penting atau perlu sahaja.
Bekalan rizab minyak Malaysia kini tinggal 3.9 bilion tong.
Pada tahun 1996, kita mempunyai rezab sebanyak 4.3 billion tong.
Ini bermakna jumlahnya sudah menyusut (dan telaga baru juga
tidak ditemui.) Namun demikian pengeluaran minyak mentah negara
agak stabil antara 690,000 tong hingga 730,000 tong sehari.
Kadar ini mencapai purata 720,000 tong ketika tahun krisis kewangan
Disebabkan rizab minyak negara yang semakin menurun, Petronas
memulakan ekspedisi antarabangsa dan strategi mencarigali
diluar negara. Kini Petronas sudah melabur dalam industri
carigali dan pengeluaran minyak di Syria, Turkmenistan, Iran,
Pakistan, China, Vietnam, Burma, Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, Sudan,
dan Angola. Pada Tahun 1999, kebanyakkan ekspot minyak Malaysia
dipasarkan ke Jepun, Thailand, Korea Selatan dan Singapura.
Kebanyakkan minyak keluaran negara berkualti tinggi kerana
kandungan sulfurnya yang rendah. Lebih separuh dari minyak
negara datang dari loji Tapis. Esso Production Malaysia Inc
(EPMI), satu rakan kongsi syarikat ExxonMobil Corp., adalah
pengeluar minyak mentah terbesar di Malaysia kerana memproses
hampir 50% minyak Malaysia. EPMI beroperasi di tujuh pelantar
di semenanjung dan satu pertiga dari keluaran mereka
datang dari pelantar Seligi, yang terletak 165 batu dari
EPMI memegang 78% kepentingan manakala Petronas Carigali
pula memegang 22% yang selebihnya di Seligi. Di
pelantar Raya-A pula Esso melabur 96 juta dalam 6 telaga,
dengan memegang 80% kepentingan manakala Petronas 20%.
DI Sabah, Syarikat Shell Petroleum menguasai kepentingan.
Sehll memegang 80% kepentingan dan Petronas 20%. Beberapa
siri perjanjian ekpedisi carigali ditanda tangani antara
Shell dan Petronas. pada Feb 1998.
Pengeluaran gas asli kelihatan meningkat setiap tahun.
Ekspot mencanak kembali selepas lembap sedikit pada
musim krisis 1998.
Salah satu kawasan aktif mencarigali gas ini ialah
di perairan Malaysia-Thailand. Petronas dan Trition
Energy berkongsi 50:50 untuk membina paip gas dari JDA
(Joint Development Area) ke kilang pemprosesan di
Songkla pada Nov 1999. Pada Dec 97 lalu, MTJA
bersetuju untuk berkongsi hasil gas Cakerawala,
Malaysia menyumbang 18% dari ekspot LNG dunia pada 1998.
Lain-lain tidak diterjemah.
Cuba fikir mengapa Kelantan tidak diberi royalti
dengan penemuan Gas Asli disempadan Malaysia Thai?
Mengapa tidak dibina kilangnya di Kelantan?
Siapakah yang menipu kali ini? Perhatikan tarikh perjanjian
tersebut. (PAS menerajui Kelantan kembali sejak 1990)
United States Energy Information Administration
Malaysia Energy Report (part of May 2000 report)
Malaysia is important to world energy markets because of its 81.7 trillion
cubic feet of natural gas reserves and its net oil exports of over 300,000
barrels per day. Note: All information contained in this report is the best
available as of May 2000 and is subject to change.
Malaysia contains proven oil reserves of 3.9 billion barrels, down from 4.3
billion barrels in 1996. Despite this trend toward declining oil reserves
(due to lack of significant new discoveries in recent years), Malaysia's
crude oil production has been stable in recent years, fluctuating in the
range between 690,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) and 730,000 bbl/d
between 1996 and early 2000. In 1999, crude oil production averaged
720,000 bbl/d. After a pause during the Asian financial crisis, Malaysia's
domestic petroleum product consumption is again growing.
As a result of declining oil reserves, Petronas, the state oil and gas
company, has embarked on an international exploration and production
strategy. Currently, Petronas is invested in oil exploration and production
projects in Syria, Turkmenistan, Iran, Pakistan, China, Vietnam, Burma,
Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, Sudan, and Angola. In 1999, Malaysia exported
the majority of its oil to markets in Japan, Thailand, South Korea, and
Malaysia's domestic oil production occurs offshore and primarily near
Peninsular Malaysia. Most of the country's oil fields contain low sulfur,
high quality crude, with gravities in the 35o-50o API range. Over half of
the country's oil production comes from the Tapis field, which contains 44o
API oil with 0.2% sulfur content. Esso Production Malaysia Inc. (EPMI), an
affiliate of ExxonMobil Corporation, is the largest crude oil producer in
Peninsular Malaysia, accounting for nearly half of Malaysia's crude oil
production. EPMI operates seven fields near the peninsula, and one-third
of its production comes from the Seligi field. The Seligi-F platform, with its
28 wells, is the newest satellite in the Seligi field, located 165 miles off the
coast of Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Built at a cost of $155 million,
Seligi-F is the seventh production platform on the Seligi field. The platform
came on stream in March 1998 and is expected to produce an annual
average of 21,000 bbl/d. EPMI holds a 78% interest in the project with
Petronas Carigali holding the remaining 22%. In addition, EPMI began
drilling the nearby Raya-A platform in the second quarter 1998. EPMI has
invested $96 million in six wells, and holds an 80% interest with Petronas
Carigali holding the remaining 20%.
In other developments, Sabah Shell Petroleum Company, a unit of Royal
Dutch/Shell Group, raised production at the Kinabalu field to 36,000 bbl/d,
as well as 28 million cubic feet per day (Mmcf/d) of gas. Production at
Kinabalu, located in the SB-1 block 34 miles off the coast of Labuan,
Sabah in east Malaysia, began in December 1997. Peak production is
expected to reach 40,000 bbl/d of oil and 30 Mmcf/d of gas. As operator
of the SB-1 block, Shell holds an 80% stake in the block, with Petronas
holding a 20% stake. In February 1998, Amerada Hess signed two,
five-year production sharing contracts (PSCs) with Petronas for blocks
PM304 and SK306. The PSCs commit Amerada to $24.9 million of
exploration activities on the two blocks. Amerada drilled five exploratory
wells in 1999 following a series of 2-D and 3-D seismic studies. Under
the PSCs, Amerada holds a 70% stake in PM304, offshore Terengganu,
and an 80% stake in SK 306, offshore Sarawak, with Petronas holding the
remaining interests in both blocks.
In February 2000, Sweden's Lundin Oil announced that it had signed a
sales agreement with Petronas and PetroVietnam which will allow it to
proceed with development of its long-delayed Bunga Kekwa project.
Production is scheduled to begin in 2003, with an expected volume of
40,000 bbl/d of liquids and 250 Mmcf/d of gas. Lundin Oil is the operator
of the field, and Petronas and Petrovietnam hold equity stakes in the
Refining & Downstream
Malaysia has six refineries with a total processing capacity of 524,400
bbl/d. The three largest are the 155,000 bbl/d Shell Port d##kson refinery
and thePetronas Melaka-I and 100,000 bbl/d Melaka-II refineries, which
each have a capacity of 100,000 bbl/d.
The second phase of the $1.4-billion, 200,000-bbl/d Melaka refinery
complex, located about 90 miles south of Kuala Lumpur, commenced
operation in August 1998. The 100,000-bbl/d Melaka-II second phase is
a joint venture between Petronas (45%), Conoco (40%), and Statoil (15%).
This second refinery contains a 62,000-bbl/d vacuum distillation unit,
26,000-bbl/d catalytic cracker, 28,500-bbl/d hydrocracker, 35,000-bbl/d
desulfurization unit, and 21,000-bbl/d coker. One of the main purposes of
this refinery is to supply gasoline to Conoco's service stations in Thailand
and a new line of stations planned for Malaysia. The first phase of the
Melaka refinery was finished in mid-1994 and consisted of a 100,000
bbl/d sweet crude distillation unit, which is wholly-owned by Petronas and
processes Tapis crude oil.
Petronas, in a joint venture with Conoco and Statoil began construction of
a 7,500 bbl/d lubricants plant at Melaka in 1998. Petronas and its partners
began construction on the $250 million plant in March 1998, and it is
scheduled to come on line in 2002.
In other downstream activities, Petronas signed a joint venture agreement
with Union Carbide Company, in April 1998, to build a petrochemical
complex in Kertih on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Construction
of the complex is estimated to cost $3-$4 billion and to involve three
separate projects. The centerpiece of the joint venture is an olefins
cracker unit with an annual production capacity of 600,000 metric tons of
ethylene and 85,000 metric tons of propylene. Petronas will hold a 76%
stake and Union Carbide will hold a 24% stake in this unit, which is
expected to be complete by the first quarter 2001. Both companies will
hold equal shares in the ethylene oxide/ethylene glycol plant with an
annual capacity of 320,000 metric tons and the multi-unit derivatives
plant. The derivatives plant will produce amines and ethyloxates, glycol
ethers, butyl acetate, and butanol.
Malaysia contains 81.7 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas
reserves. Natural gas production has been rising steadily in recent years,
reaching 1.44 Tcf in 1998, up from 1.36 Tcf in 1997. Natural gas
consumption in 1998 was estimated at 0.70 Tcf, with LNG exports of 0.72
Tcf (mostly to Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan). Exports dipped slightly in
1998 as a result of the Asian financial crisis, but began to climb again in
One of the most active areas in Malaysia for gas exploration and
development is the Malaysia-Thailand Joint Development Area (JDA),
located in the lower part of the Gulf of Thailand and governed by the
Malaysia-Thailand Joint Authority (MTJA). The MTJA was established by
the two governments for joint exploration of the once-disputed JDA. The
JDA covers blocks A-18 and B-17 to C-19. A 50:50 partnership between
Petronas and Triton Energy Ltd. is developing block A-18, while the
Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT) and Petronas also share equal
interests in the remaining blocks. PTT and Petronas announced an
agreement in November 1999 to proceed with development of a gas
pipeline from the JDA to a processing plant in Songkla, Thailand, and a
pipeline linking the Thai and Malaysian gas grids. Malaysia and Thailand
will each take half of the gas produced. The agreement had been delayed
two years by uncertainty over demand growth related to the Asian
financial crisis. Production from the JDA is to begin in 2002.
Block A-18 is operated by the Carigali-Triton Operating Company
(CTOC), a joint venture project between Triton and Petronas. In December
1997, the MTJA approved a development plan for CTOC's Cakerawala
gas field, which will be the first JDA field to come on line. In November
1999, CTOC signed a gas sale agreement with Petronas and PTT, which
will allow it to proceed with development. Gas production of 390 Mmcf/d
will begin in mid-2002.
Malaysia accounted for approximately 18% of total world LNG exports in
1998. After a brief downturn related to the Asian financial crisis, demand
for LNG is rising again. After much delay, Malaysia is proceeding with a
long-planned expansion of its Bintulu LNG complex in Sarawak. In
February 2000, Petronas signed a contract with a consortium headed by
Kellogg Brown and Root for construction of the MLNG Tiga facility, with
two LNG liquefaction trains and a total capacity of 7.6 million metric tons
(370 Bcf) per year. The Bintulu facility as a whole will then be the largest
LNG liquefaction center in the world, with a total capacity of 23 million
metric tons per year (1.1 Tcf).
Apart from its existing customers, Petronas will be selling some of the gas
from MLNG Tiga to Enron's Metgas project in India. Malaysia also has
sold some spot LNG cargoes to Coral Energy of the United States.
Malaysia currently has approximately 14 gigawatts (GW) of electric
generation capacity. In 1998, Malaysia generated around 57.4 billion
kilowatthours of electricity. In addition, the following power projects are
scheduled to be commissioned after 2000: Yan Power Plant (1,200 MW),
Lumut Power Plant (2,100 MW), Perlis Power Plant (650 MW), and Kulim
Power Plant (450 MW).
In 1994, the government granted approval for the massive 2.4-GW Bakun
hydroelectric project in Sarawak. Scheduled for completion in 2002, the
Bakun Dam had been slated to send 70% of its generated power from
Sarawak to Kuala Lumpur through the construction of 415 miles of
overhead lines in eastern Malaysia, 400 miles of submarine cables, and
285 miles of distribution infrastructure in Peninsular Malaysia. In addition,
expansion plans included a high voltage line south to Johor Baharu and
north to Perlis, near the western Thai border. A local company, Ekran, was
awarded a turnkey contract to manage the project in January 1995. In
1996, the construction contract went to Sweden's Asea Brown Boveri
(ABB). However, in early September 1997, the Malaysian government
announced that it was delaying the project indefinitely, citing an
unexpected rise in the dam's cost due to the country's economic
In mid-1999 work resumed on the river diversion tunnels, a major
component of the project, which will be completed by the end of 2000. The
Malaysian government has taken control of the project and negotiated
financial settlements with the firms involved. The subsea transmission line
concept has been abandoned, and the Malaysian government is exploring
the possibility of sales of electricity to Brunei and Indonesia. It is certain
that the project will be scaled down from its original 2.4-GW capacity, but
to what extent is still unclear.
Malaysia is considering reforms to its power sector to make it more
competitive and lower costs. Currently, three state-owned utilities
dominate power generation and distribution in Malaysia. The market was
opened to independent power producers (IPPs) in 1994, and 15 IPPs were
licensed. While initial rates of return on capital were good for the IPPs, the
Asian financial crisis came as a major blow to IPPs profits.
In recent developments, Tenaga Nasional Bhd, one of the state utilities,
began in 1999 to divest some some of its power generation units.
Eventually, Malaysia expects to achieve a fully competitive power market,
with generation, transmission, and distribution decoupled, but reform is still
at an early stage and the exact process of the transition to a competitive
market has not been decided.
Sources for this report include: Dow Jones Newswire service; Economist
Intelligence Unit ViewsWire; Oil and Gas Journal; Petroleum Economist;
New Straits Times; U.S. Department of State, Country Commercial Guides;
U.S. Energy Information Administration; WEFA Asia Economic Outlook.
Malay and other indigenous (58%), Chinese (26%), Indian (7%), others (9%)
* The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro,
nuclear, geothermal, solar and wind electric power. The renewable energy consumption
statistic is based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar,
wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial
and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are also
based on IEA data.
OIL AND GAS INDUSTRIES
Major Foreign Oil Company Involvement:
BP Amoco, Conoco, Enron, ExxonMobil, Murphy Oil,
Nippon Mitsubishi Oil, Occidental, Shell, Statoil,
Major Oil Fields:
Major Natural Gas Fields:
Major Oil Refineries:
Major Oil Pipelines: >
Major Oil Terminals: